What is KPV? Perhaps the most important discovery to arise from KPV research is the finding that the peptide reduces intestinal inflammation. In mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), KPV shows robust results, reducing inflammatory infiltrates, MPO activity, and overall histological evidence of inflammation. Mice treated with KPV in the study recovered faster and […]

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What Is Kisspeptin-10? Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is synthesized in and released from GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus. It is the first hormone released in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and controls the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary gland. GnRH is the primary driver of puberty and controls the maturation […]

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What is Gonadorelin? Research suggests that having a higher life-time exposure to estrogen may increase a woman’s chance of developing breast cancer. Women who start their period at a younger age, go through menopause at a later age, take estrogen-containing birth control, or have menopausal hormone replacement therapy all have a higher risk of developing […]

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What is Thymosin Alpha-1? Thymosin alpha-1 is peptide containing 28 amino acid residues that are N-terminally acetylated and proteolytically processed from prothymosin alpha. Thymosin alpha-1 was isolated by Goldstein and coworkers from thymosin fraction 5, a mixture of peptides from calf thymus in the 1970s. It is used to improve immune responses in times of need. […]

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What is Tirzepatide? Tirzepatide is a once-weekly dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist that integrates the actions of both incretins into a single novel molecule. GIP is a hormone that may complement the effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists. In preclinical models, GIP has been shown to decrease food intake and […]

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What is Semaglutide? GLP-1, short for glucagon-like peptide-1 is a short, naturally occurring peptide hormone just 30-31 amino acids in length. Its primary physiologic function is to lower blood sugar levels by naturally enhancing insulin secretion. It also plays roles in protection beta cell insulin stores by promoting insulin gene transcription and has been linked […]

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How To Store Peptides Best Practices For Storing Peptides To preserve the integrity of laboratory results, proper storage of peptides is essential. Correct storage practices can maintain peptides for years and guard against contamination, oxidation, and degradation that may render your peptides, and therefore experiments, useless. While some peptides are more susceptible to degradation than […]

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Peptide vs. Protein What are the Differences? Peptides and proteins, while similar in many regards, have several key differences that are important to understand. Oftentimes the terms “peptide” and “protein” are used synonymously, but differing characteristics and biological activities between the two compounds prevent the terms from being totally interchangeable. To fully appreciate the differences […]

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What Is PT-141? PT-141 is a heavily modified derivative of a natural hormone called alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH). In the most general sense, PT-141 works directly through the nervous system to increase sexual desire, arousal, and satisfaction. It does this by mimicking some, but not all, of the properties of ?-MSH. To understand in more detail […]

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What are mitochondria? Mitochondria are membrane-bound cell organelles (mitochondrion, singular) that generate most of the chemical energy needed to power the cell’s biochemical reactions. Chemical energy produced by the mitochondria is stored in a small molecule called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondria are small, often between 0.75 and 3 micrometers and are not visible under the […]

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