What Is MT1 (Melanotan 1)? Melanotan 1 (MT1) and its counterpart melanotan 2 (MT2) are synthetic derivatives of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (a-MSH). Both peptides bind to melanocortin receptors to produce a variety of interesting effects. Of note, both MT1 and MT2 have an impact on melanin expression and thus skin pigmentation. Both also affect sexual […]

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What Is MT2 (Melanotan 2)? The melanocortin system consists of five seven-transmembrane spanning G-protein coupled (GPCRs) receptors (MC1R-MC5R), the endogenous agonists a-, B- and melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and the endogenous antagonists Agouti and Agouti-related protein (AGRP). The melanocortins are a group of small protein hormones derived by post-translational cleavage of the […]

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What Is LL-37? LL-37 is the only known human cathelicidin, which is a large protein family with diverse function. These peptides, which are primarily found in macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (both types of white blood cell), are important for killing bacteria, but have been found to have other dramatic effects as well. The entire class […]

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What Is Ipamorelin? In the world of anti-aging research, a handful of peptides have become superstars. Ipamorelin is one of those peptides. This short peptide is just five amino acids in length, but is one of the most selective growth hormone secretagogue receptor agonists known. This means that ipamorelin research has been shown to help […]

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What Is IGF-1? Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1), also known as Somatomedin-C, is a polypeptide growth factor that is a member of the insulin family of peptides. IGF-1 includes 70 amino acids with a molecular weight of 7649 Daltons. Similar to insulin, which has 51 amino acids, IGF-1 has an A and B chain connected by […]

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What Is Humanin? “Humanin (HN) is an endogenous mitochondria-derived peptide that has cytoprotective effects and reduces oxidative stress. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that chronic supplementation of exogenous HN in middle-aged mice could prevent and reverse cardiac fibrosis and apoptosis in the aging heart.” HNG treatment significantly increased the ratio of cardiomyocytes […]

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What Is HGH-Frag 176-191? Sometimes referred to as the “lipolytic fragment.” Fragment 176-191 earned this latter name due to the fact that laboratory research has shown it to enhance fat burning, particularly in mice genetically engineered to produce large fat stores. Fragment 176-191 has been heavily researched in animal models because even while it preserves […]

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What Is GHRP-6? GHRP-6 is an effective stimulator of natural Growth Hormone Release from the anterior pituitary. GHRP-6 is also a ghrelin/growth hormone receptor agonist and one of a handful of ghrelin analogues developed in the last several decades. It has been found to have positive effects on heart muscle cells, memory formation, scar formation, […]

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What Are Peptides?   Peptides and proteins are both made up of amino acids that are linked together (by peptide bonds, hence the name) in long chains called polymers. The only thing that separates peptides from proteins is how big they are. While there is no absolute cutoff, peptides are made up of fewer amino […]

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What Is GHRP-2?   GHRP-2 (a.k.a. Pralmorelin) is a synthetic growth hormone secretagogue known to bind to the ghrelin/growth hormone secretagogue receptor. It was the first of the growth hormone secretagogues to be introduced and is currently marketed as a test peptide for the assessment of growth hormone deficiency and secondary adrenal failure. GHRP-2 has […]

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